Volvo C70 turns 20 – a niche car made by passion
The C70 represented a new niche in an important period for Volvo, a project that was driven by enthusiasm and a love of cars by a small and passionate team. Twenty years ago, it was first shown to the world.
When the Volvo C70 was first unveiled during the Paris Motor Show on 30 September 1996, it was not only the slender body that was brand new. It was Volvo’s first “proper” coupé since the 1800 model, and the first time Volvo had cooperated with engineering firm TWR on a new car. Furthermore, it was to be built partly using new methods at a newly opened plant in the Swedish town of Uddevalla.
At the beginning of the 1990s, Volvo decided to expand its passenger car programme with a coupé and a cabriolet. The two versions would be developed in parallel and built on the technological base of the 850 model.
A small project group was formed in early 1994 and Håkan Abrahamsson was appointed project manager. Volvo had limited experience in developing such a characteristically niche product, and they were in quite a rush. They therefore chose to cooperate with the British engineering firm TWR, Tom Walkinshaw Racing, who were already involved with Volvo’s racing team in the BTCC.
"Without a doubt this was the most fun car project I’ve been involved with," Håkan Abrahamsson says today. Volvo wanted a project manager who was a little younger - preferably one who would be under 40 be the time the car was unveiled.
The team had just a couple of months during 1994 to define the project, and they got to work almost straight away with a comprehensive competitor analysis. The project group had to cancel their holidays and instead headed to the south to France to rent and try out coupés and cabriolets from their key competitors.
Since they were supposed to be on holiday, they were allowed to bring their families, which turned out to be an unexpected success. Several comments were noted that would not have emerged if it had only been car designers who had analysed the competition. This was hugely beneficial during the continued design work and the team often returned to their experiences with their families.
A large part of the design and development work took place at TWR near Oxford in England. Volvo was responsible for the basic technical structure, and determined which characteristics the car was to have. TWR was responsible for design and production adjustment. A complete development team worked in a huge barn where Tom Walkinshaw, TWR’s charismatic owner, also kept his car collection.
The project group were given an unusually free hand in terms of shaping the car, and head of design Peter Horbury wanted to change the idea that Volvo design was angular and boxy. When TWR’s Ian Callum showed sketches of a coupé that featured a significantly arched roofline and sculpted sides following proposals that had been considered “too Volvo”, the matter was decided. The design would go on to remain almost unchanged right up to production.
The new car had the same wheelbase as the Volvo 850 and was the same length, but it still gave the impression that it was rather more dapper. As it was already known from the beginning that the car would also be produced as a cabriolet, the development team ensured that the design worked both with and without a roof.
The development period for the C70 was brief - it took just 30 months from the first studies until the first cars were produced. The collaboration with TWR was crucial in achieving this, and the project costs were more manageable.
Volvo's then head of design, Peter Horbury, was clearly enthusiastic about the new language of design represented by the C70: "We threw away the box but kept the toy inside," he said after the first press viewing, where he had driven a saffron yellow C70 onto the stage.
The front clearly linked to Volvo, while the rest of the body was significantly curvier than anything previously released by the company - at least the first in a long time. The C70 heralded a new design direction that would characterise many future models.
Freedom of choice for the customer was important in a car like the C70, and there were 17 different paint colours to choose between. Solid, metallic and pearl. With 40 different interior combinations with differences in material and colours, the choices were almost endless.
It was crucial that the speed matched the appearance. The C70 was therefore launched exclusively with five cylinder turbo engines. The strongest engine, at 2.3 litres and 240 hp, was shared with the Volvo 850R. A calmer version, at 2.5 litres and 193 hp, was also released at the same time, and there were also 2 litre versions offering 180 and 225 hp respectively for markets where cylinder volume determines taxation levels.
Despite the C70 being very much an emotional car, where the design governed its function, there was plenty of room for four people and their luggage. And since Volvo developed it, the safety levels were high, featuring a side impact protection system (SIPS), whiplash protection (WHIPS) and belt tensioners and side airbags.
Together with TWR, Volvo formed a joint venture company, Autonova, in Uddevalla. Volvo had previously operated in Uddevalla, but production had ceased some years earlier. Now the factory was rebuilt and refurbished to incorporate the niche car. Production moved on from the assembly line principle, and instead a work team followed each car through several stages of production until the next team took over. The capacity of the new factory was 20,000 cars per year.
The news that the Volvo C70 Coupé would be joined by a cabriolet was announced at the same time as the coupé was launched. The C70 Cabriolet was unveiled one year later and it was the first convertible Volvo of the modern era. For many years, Volvo had been sceptical about cabriolets for crash safety reasons, but the C70 Cabriolet saw the introduction of features such as ROPS - Roll Over Protection System - with two protective frames behind the rear seat that were activated if the car rolled over. The windscreen frame was anchored to the base plate and manufactured from high-strength steel.
The design stood the test of time and did not change significantly during the nine years of life enjoyed by the first generation. The Volvo C70 Coupé was manufactured until 2002, while the cabriolet lived on for a further three years until April 2005. By this time, 76,809 C70s had been built, of which 27,014 were coupés and 49,795 cabriolets.
The second generation C70 convertible, featuring a three piece retractable hardtop and built by Pininfarina, was launched at Paris Motor Show in September 2005.
10 things you may not know about the Volvo C70.
- The C70 had one of the world´s best sound systems at the time. Loudspeakers from the Danish prestige brand Dynaudio, Dolby Surround and an amplifier with up to 4x100 watts.
- The 17 different exterior colours were developed under the supervision of designer José Diaz de la Vega. He also led the design work for the interior, while Anders Gunnarsson played the same role for the exterior.
- In Sweden, there is a special club for C 70 owners - the Swedish Volvo C70 club. They are organising a parade from the factory in Uddevalla to the Volvo Museum in Gothenburg in conjunction with the 20th anniversary.
- The première in Paris could also be followed online - it was the first time this had ever happened in Europe.
- In 1998, the C70 was ranked as the best Volvo in J.D. Power’s customer satisfaction survey and it came in fifth overall.
- Finnish firm Valmet produced a proposal for a C70 cabriolet with a tin roof. This did not lead to production, but the C70’s successor was given a roof of this type in 2005.
- Tom Walkinshaw, the man behind TWR, was an experienced racing driver with three touring car world titles and two victories at the Daytona and Le Mans 24-hour races, respectively.
- In 1999, Volvo acquired TWR from Autonova and continued production in-house. Later on, Volvo formed a company with Italian Pininfarina.
- In the film production of The Saint (1996), Simon Templar, played by Val Kilmer, drove a Garnet Red Volvo C70. The film was shot before the C70 had been unveiled, which meant a great deal of secrecy was called for.
- The preliminary prospectus for the C70 was sparse. It consisted of elegant pictures, a few technical facts and a three line quotation from Peter Horbury: "I’ve tried to create a car that people will want, not a car people need."
Volvo Cars reveals its adventurous side with new V90 Cross Country
Volvo Cars, the premium car maker, has unveiled the eagerly awaited V90 Cross Country, completing its 90 Series line-up.
Since the introduction of the first Cross Country almost 20 years ago, Volvo Cars has become synonymous with the rugged all-road, all-weather product category, with a growing stable of Cross Country models.
Volvo Cars’ Cross Country models fulfil an increasingly important part of the Swedish automaker’s product portfolio as luxury car buyers seek out a more experienced-based lifestyle that occasionally takes them off the beaten track.
“The V90 Cross Country takes the elegance of the V90 and transforms it into an all-road car that delivers safety, comfort and performance in a capable and adventurous package,” said Håkan Samuelsson, President & CEO, Volvo Car Group.
With some of the harshest winters on the planet and over 77 percent of the country covered in forest and lakes, Sweden is the natural place to develop and test extreme durability and all-weather capable cars. This hard-won expertise represents a large part of Volvo Cars’ heritage, reflected in the company’s Cross Country model line-up.
“Our cars are well known for their safety, strength and durability. With All-Wheel Drive, increased ride height, and a chassis optimized for comfort and control in all weather and road conditions, the new V90 Cross Country takes our versatile V90 estate and adds the heart of an explorer,” said Dr. Peter Mertens, Senior Vice President Research & Development at Volvo Cars.
With Volvo Cars’ Scalable Product Architecture providing the underpinnings, the V90 Cross Country has undergone rigorous testing to ensure that it can survive the extremes in which it will ultimately find itself.
From secret testing facilities in the frozen north of Sweden, where temperatures regularly hit -40 degrees to the searing desert heat of Arizona, where Volvo Cars performs its high temperature testing program, the V90 Cross Country has been built to last.
With a design that clearly stands out from the crowd, the V90 Cross Country’s rugged character belies a sumptuous interior that delivers a level of luxury uncommon in the segment, combining all the benefits of the connectivity and entertainment features that were launched with the new S90 and V90, including a high-end sound system by Bowers & Wilkins.
The V90 Cross Country’s exterior design cues communicate the powerful and dynamic capability that the car exemplifies, while offering the flexibility to choose from both rugged and elegant expressions.
“Designing a Volvo Cross Country is not a styling exercise, a plastic job. It is based on honest capability. The Volvo V90 Cross Country brings a surprising and intriguing combination of a strong, powerful exterior and a luxurious, Scandinavian interior. It will continue the genuine tradition of the Volvo Cross Country with a new recipe: The blend of powerful off-road capability in a most elegant, sophisticated, tailored wagon suit,” said Thomas Ingenlath, Senior Vice President Design at Volvo Cars.
The new V90 Cross Country takes this well-established segment to a new level of comfort-inspired capability. Production of the car is set to start this autumn at Volvo Cars Torslanda Plant in Sweden.
Drive Me, the world’s most ambitious and advanced public autonomous driving experiment, starts today
Volvo Cars, the premium car maker, has officially kicked off Drive Me, the world’s most ambitious and advanced public autonomous driving experiment. This morning it produced the very first autonomous car that will be used in the Drive Me project in Gothenburg.
The autonomous Volvo XC90 SUV was finalized in Volvo Cars’ special manufacturing facility in Torslanda this morning and is the first in a series of autonomous cars that will eventually be handed to real families in Gothenburg to be driven on public roads.
Volvo is the industry leader in the area of automotive safety and believes the introduction of AD technology promises to reduce car accidents. Furthermore, AD technology promises to free up congested roads, reduce pollution and allows drivers to use their time in their cars more valuably.
Volvo currently offers a semi-autonomous functionality called Pilot Assist on its 90 series cars. Pilot Assist gives gentle steering inputs to keep the car properly aligned within lane markings up to 130 km/h without the need to follow another car. The Drive Me cars will add hands-off and feet-off capability in special autonomous drive zones around Gothenburg, powered by what Volvo calls the Autonomous Driving Brain.
The Swedish company, whose name is synonymous with automotive safety ever since it invented the three point seat belt in 1959, is pioneering the development of autonomous driving systems as part of its vision that no one will be seriously injured or killed in a new Volvo by the year 2020.
It is the customer-focused approach that sets the Drive Me project apart from other autonomous driving experiments. Instead of relying purely on the research of its own engineers, Volvo aims to collect feedback and inputs from real customers using these autonomous cars in their everyday lives.
By choosing this customer-focused approach, Volvo aims to further fine-tune its autonomous driving technologies and make its offering as relevant as possible to customers ahead of a commercial introduction around 2021.
“This is an important milestone for the Drive Me project,” said Erik Coelingh, Senior Technical Leader Active Safety at Volvo Cars, as he observed the final touches being put to the car. “Customers look at their cars differently than us engineers, so we are looking forward to learn how they use these cars in their daily lives and what feedback they will give us.”
After rolling of the production line, the Drive Me customer cars will undergo a rigorous testing phase to ensure that the cars’ advanced autonomous driving technology functions exactly as they should. Once this testing phase, overseen by Volvo’s highly capable engineers, is finalized the cars will be handed over to the customers participating in the Drive Me pilot.
The Drive Me pilot project in Gothenburg is the first in a number of planned public trials with autonomous driving Volvo cars. A similar project to the one in Gothenburg will be launched in London next year, while Volvo is also assessing bids from interested cities in China to launch a Drive Me project there within the next few years.
Volvo also actively engages in strategic partnerships in the area of autonomous drive technology. Last month, it launched a new partnership with ride-sharing company Uber to jointly develop the next generation of autonomous driving cars. Earlier this week, Volvo revealed it will set up a new jointly-owned company together with leading automotive supplier Autoliv to develop next generation autonomous driving software.
Volvo Cars travels down a familiar road with the coming V90 Cross Country
Volvo Cars’ instrumental role in defining the adventurous Cross Country segment is widely acknowledged. With the imminent reveal of the new V90 Cross Country, the Swedish carmaker is set to cement its leading role in producing vehicles that are elegant in style and rugged for outdoor adventures.
“Cross Country has become the true expression of a Volvo car in many peoples’ eyes. It was a winning concept from the start, perfect for the tough climate and road conditions that we experience in Sweden,” said Håkan Samuelsson, President & CEO, Volvo Car Group.
Developed in 1996, the first Cross Country combined functional flexibility and rugged capability. Today, 20 years later, the Cross Country segment is a familiar sight across the premium car market, providing a capable, yet comfortable driving experience.
Extreme climate capability
Designed to cope with the demanding requirements of an extreme Scandinavian climate, Cross Country models perform in all sorts of road conditions – from muddy tracks and knee-deep snow to long distance highway driving. Proving a popular choice with horse and boat owners thanks to its high ground clearance, pulling power and responsive All-Wheel Drive, Cross Country has cemented its position as a premium mainstay and a true all-weather alternative to the SUV.
“We were very careful from the very beginning to ensure that the Cross Country concept was not just an exercise in rugged styling. We placed high demands on real-world capability, and as we developed the segment we added the comfort and convenience elements that Volvo drivers have come to expect,” said Dr Peter Mertens, Senior Vice President Research & Development at Volvo Car Group.
The eagerly awaited V90 Cross Country will be revealed in mid-September.
Volvo Amazon - a female warrior turns 60
Volvo’s timeless beauty, the Amazon, was introduced to the world for the first time 60 years ago. Named after the female warriors in Greek mythology, it is still one of the most iconic models in Volvo’s history.
Volvo’s new four-door model was revealed in the first weekend of September in 1956. It had its premiere in the Swedish town of Örebro, with the elegant car differing greatly from the common perception of what a Volvo should look like.
The shapes were beautiful and challenging, with features drawn from Italian, British and American design. The man responsible for the design was 26 year old Jan Wilsgaard, who went on to become Volvo’s head of design for many years, designing the 140, 240 and 700 series, as well as parts of the 800 series. Jan Wilsgaard recently passed away at the age of 86.
The new car was the company’s second postwar model, following on from the PV444, and had been named Amason - spelled with an ‘s’. The name came from Greek mythology, in which the Amazons were female warriors. The spelling was changed to the more internationally viable Amazon prior to the launch of production in 1957. Unfortunately, the German moped and motorcycle manufacturer Kreidler also happened to launch a moped called Amazone at the same time, which meant the name was unavailable in a number of key markets.
A deal was reached to allow the Volvo model to be known as Amazon in the Nordic markets. In the rest of the world, the standard model was known as 121 while 122 was used for the sport model. The estate model with a standard engine was called 221, while 222 was used for estates with the sport engine. However, the car is now known as Amazon around the world.
The first few years of Amazons were incredibly elegant. Between 1957 and 1959, all cars were two-colored. The combinations on offer were black, midnight blue or ruby red bodies with a light grey roof, or a light grey body with a black roof. From 1959, it became possible to buy an Amazon in just one color, and 1961 was the final year of production of the two-colored cars.
The 1958 Amazon Sport was developed for customers who wanted more power. With twin SU carburetors and a sharper camshaft, the engine could generate 85 hp SAE.
In 1959, Volvo’s patented three-point seatbelt became a standard feature in the Amazon - a world first! No single other safety feature has been anywhere near as significant. It is estimated that at least one million lives have been saved by the three-point seatbelt over the course of its 57-year lifetime.
February 1962 marked the introduction of the estate edition of the Amazon. The difference between this car and the Duett van was substantial. The Amazon estate was an elegant car with an American-inspired boot door that was split horizontally.
The sportiest edition of the Amazon was the 123 GT, which borrowed its engine from the 1800S sports car. The 123 GT was launched as a 1967 model, offering 115 hp and overdrive. The wing mirrors were attached to the front fenders, extra lights came as standard and a tachometer was mounted above the dashboard.
Product development on the Amazon continued despite the introduction of the 140 series in 1966. Both the Amazon and the 140 series received the new B20 engine for their respective 1969 models. The larger volume provided better torque and a slight increase in power.
667,791 Amazons were built between 1956 and 1970, making it Volvo’s most manufactured model at that moment. The Amazon switched Volvo’s focus from the domestic market to the export market - a total of 60 per cent of Amazon’s manufactured were sold outside of Sweden.
In 1963, Volvo’s plant in the Canadian city of Halifax opened its doors. Cars were built there for the North American market.
Later, an assembly plant was also opened in Durban, South Africa. However, the biggest investment was in the Belgian city of Ghent. As Sweden was outside of what was then the EEC, it was important to get a foot inside the European customs union. In 1965 the factory opened with an initial capacity of 14,000 cars per year.
On 3 July 1970, the final Amazon was built at Torslanda. It was dark blue and was driven straight into the collection of cars that later became the Volvo Museum.
10 facts about the Volvo Amazon you may not know:
- Around eight per cent of the approximately 297,000 Amazons sold in Sweden are still around! The most common edition is the model from 1966, of which there are still 4,804 registered cars. In total, there are 24,282 Volvo Amazons registered in Sweden.
- Volvo’s factory driver, Carl-Magnus Skogh, won the 1965 Acropolis Rally in Greece driving a 122S.
- The Swedish police cooperated with Volvo, and they jointly developed equipment that was later included on ordinary production cars. The police cars featured disc brakes, brake assist and radial tires several years before they became common in production cars. The police Amazons were equipped with rear window fans and there was a button by the steering wheel connecting the windscreen cleaner with the fastest windscreen wiper setting.
- Colin Powell, the USA’s former Secretary of State and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is a big fan of cars. He has owned several classic Volvos, including a 1966 Amazon estate. When he left his post as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1993, he was given an Amazon in dire need of renovation by President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore.
- The 1963 Geneva catalogue featured the Volvo 122S Cabriolet - its creator was listed as Jacques Coune, the Belgian coach builder. It was a beautiful conversion, featuring doors without window frames, door openings that were gently rounded at the back and rear lights that were angled forward. The catalogue gave the impression that it was a production car, but Volvo had nothing to do with the initiative and only four were built.
- Advertising man Amil Gargano of New York took on the Volvo account in 1962. He concluded that Volvos could withstand practically anything, and this became the brand’s USP. An advertising film shows an Amazon being driven hard on gravel roads. The advert’s payoff is just as clear as it is impossible today: “And you can drive it like you hate it. Cheaper than psychiatry”.
- There were plans to put a V8 in an Amazon - an evolved version of a truck engine. Five prototypes were said to have been built, but in the end Volvo’s management realized that a V8 was not suitable for the Amazon, not least given there was no six-cylinder version and the leap from a four to a V8 would have been too great.
- The Amazons built in Volvo’s assembly plant in Halifax, Canada were marketed under the name Volvo Canadian.
- When Volvo’s range of models expanded thanks to the Amazon, Volvo regained its position as Sweden’s best selling brand of car in 1958. This is a position it had retained every year since then.
- In “All The President’s Men”, the movie about the Watergate affair that forced the resignation of President Richard Nixon, Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward, played by Robert Redford, drives a white Amazon.